Then there is the teaser approach common, I think, particularly in treatments of the early modern period: History textbooks—including world history textbooks—are full of developments in the past, and in this sense they clearly catalog change.
The first step is essentially comparative, though in this case "over time" rather than "across space. Even pausing in a coverage session to ask what was really changing here, and why, and what was persisting, will help students meet the challenge of turning descriptive facts into building blocks Continuity and change over time essay outline permit analysis of change.
Reminding students to test the general factors involved in periodization to the question at hand is already a step forward, providing global context for key developments over time. Too often, responses on change over time and this applies to "real" historians, not just students fail to establish a clear baseline: And indeed, practice and classroom modeling provide the obvious lessons here, applicable to contemporary cases where major change is claimed as well as to the past.
Change relatively rarely proceeds smoothly; there are interruptions, even back eddies.
In the second place, dealing with change over time, and its associated challenges including attendant continuity, is the central analytical task of historians: It will be interesting to see if AP teachers can not only improve essay results already showing some positive signs of good coachingbut also accelerate both the learning curve and the capacity to retain a crucial historical habit of mind beyond the classroom.
Change usually receives additional stimuli over long stretches of time. Practice will help, along with appropriate knowledge, but overrigid answer formulas could mislead. The second phase of analysis, beyond before and after, asks students to get involved with the process of change, the intervening developments that add real flesh to what otherwise will seem too cut and dried.
This article is an expanded version of remarks he delivered to a session on AP World History at the annual conference of the National Council for the Social Studies. Many teachers are urging their students to identify some midpoint in order to avoid simply dealing with beginning and end; the advice is well intended and surely will help a bit.
Analyzing Change Over Time Capturing an actual continuity and change-over-time question involves two steps, and many teachers have been working very constructively on more precise iterations of these steps as guides to constructing the essay.
Peter Stearns is a former chair of the AP World History Development Committee as well as a coauthor of several world history textbooks and the editor of the Encyclopedia of World History. The same analytical issue is present in both cases, but obviously leads to rather different responses.
It also contributes to an assessment of significance: Process involves, among other things, identifying the major relevant developments that occur between baseline and endpoint.
Globalization, for example, accelerated rapidly by many relevant definitions between the s andonly to roll back thanks to decisions by the Soviets, the United States, and ultimately Mao as well as Hitler for 30 years thereafter, following which the pattern of globalization changes emerged again.
For Africa, on the other hand, the end of slave trade and then the intensification of Western exploitation from the late nineteenth century onward would make more sense. Helping students improve their capacities here, ideally in ways they can ultimately take beyond the classroom to activities in work and citizenship, is a crucial assignment, even beyond the cherished ability to deal with documents.
Since many change questions also involve causation, this is an opportunity to talk about significant intervening factors that may accelerate the change, push it in slightly different directions, delay it for a while, or do all the above.
This is an aspect of assessing change we too often forget, but it is vital in a contemporary culture that tends to tout revolutionary change at every turn, from lingerie designs to security threats.
This same relationship will help students deal with chronological order—not precise dates, usually, but a sense of what came before what—without which the context for change over time cannot be established.
Exploring strategies for dealing with the continuity and change-over-time essay on the AP World History Exam involves a bit more than the normal interest in preparing students for each exam segment in the best possible way and, hopefully, accelerating their learning curve in the bargain.
Unfortunately, formulas have limits here:1 How to Write a Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT) Essay Background: The Rubric Like the DBQ and Comparative essays, the CCOT is scored according to a rubric.
WHAP - Part B: Continuity and Change-Over-Time Essay This essay question deals specifically with analysis of continuities and changes over time and covers at least one of the periods in the concept outline. Exploring strategies for dealing with the continuity and change-over-time essay on the AP World History Exam involves a bit more than the normal interest in preparing students for each exam segment in the best possible way and, hopefully, accelerating their learning curve in the bargain.
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